Impact Performance of Composite Decking
The backyard deck has taken on an ever increasing role in our lives becoming an extension of a homes interior living space. Traditionally decks have been built from pressure treated lumber, however, cost, life cycle, appearance, construction time, maintenance and environmental concerns are all factors contributing to the huge growth in the use of wood–plastic composites, also known as composite decking.
Made from a wide ranging mixture of wood and plastic, composite decking has certain advantages like durability, color retention and reduced maintenance costs over pressure treated wood. With a material cost 20 to 30 percent more than pressure treated pine, impact performance can be critical. Decks are routinely subjected to a wide range of everyday impact events, dropped tools, patio furniture, ladders and paint cans to name a few, and the types and quantities of the various materials used in the manufacturing of the decking can affect their resistance to impacts.
When approached by a manufacturer of composite decking we recommended a CEAST 9350 with optional High energy system, instrumented with a 22.2kN tup, ½” hemispherical tup insert, 1” spherical tup insert, DAS 8000 Data Acquisition System and Visual Impact software. By varying the tup insert and test velocity we were able to create a range of impact profiles and energies that allowed the customer to simulate a wide variety of impacts that their product might be subjected to.
The 9350 is well suited for helping customers determine the performance characteristics of their materials when subjected to an impact event. The information gathered by doing instrumented impact testing can be used to provide the customer with a data baseline whereby they can determine how changes made in the mix of raw materials will perform in real life situations. A broader range of testing could be accomplished with the inclusion of an environmental chamber to study impact characteristics at different temperatures as well as using different fixtures and inserts to simulate other unsupported spans and impact events.
Impact resistance is one of the most important properties for component designers to consider, as well as the most difficult to quantify. Impact resistance is a critical measure of service life and more importantly these days, it involves the perplexing problem of product safety and liability. With the combined experience of Dynatup® and CEAST, Instron® has more than 80 years experience in designing impact testing systems to simulate real-life impact conditions.
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